+ Chapter 1: Exploring Data Introduction Data Analysis: Making Sense of Data + Chapter 1 Exploring Data Introduction: Data Analysis: Making Sense of Data 1.1 Analyzing Categorical Data 1.2 Displaying Quantitative Data with Graphs 1.3 Describing Quantitative Data with Numbers + Introduction Data Analysis: Making Sense of Data Learning Objectives After this section, you should be able to… DEFINE “Individuals” and “Variables” DISTINGUISH between “Categorical” and “Quantitative” variables DEFINE “Distribution” DESCRIBE the idea behind “Inference” Data Analysis is the process of organizing, displaying, summarizing, and asking questions about data. Definitions: Individuals – objects (people, animals, things) described by a set of data Variable - any characteristic of an individual Ex) Take survey on students. Ask questions about b-day and GPA Ex) Research about phones (Samsung, LG, Apple etc). Take info on model, size, and capacity. + is the science of data. Data Analysis Statistics Data Analysis is the process of organizing, displaying, summarizing, and asking questions about data. Definitions: Individuals – objects (people, animals, things) described by a set of data Variable - any characteristic of an individual Categorical Variable – places an individual into one of several groups or categories. Quantitative Variable – takes numerical values for which it makes sense to find an average. + is the science of data. Data Analysis Statistics Definition: Distribution – tells us what values a variable takes and how often it takes those values Example 2009 Fuel Economy Guide MODEL 2009 Fuel Economy Guide 2009 Fuel Economy Guide MPG MPG MODEL <new>MODEL MPG 1 Acura RL 922 Dodge Avenger 1630 Mercedes- Benz E350 24 2 Audi A6 Quattro 1023 Hyundai Elantra 1733 Mercury Milan 29 3 Bentley Arnage 1114 Jaguar XF 1825 Mitsubishi Galant 27 4 BMW 5281 1228 Kia Optima 1932 Nissan Maxima 26 5 Buick Lacrosse 1328 Lexus GS 350 2026 Rolls Royce Phantom 18 6 Cadillac CTS 1425 Lincolon MKZ 2128 Saturn Aura 33 7 Chevrolet Malibu 1533 Mazda 6 2229 Toyota Camry 31 8 Chrysler Sebring 1630 Mercedes-Benz E350 2324 Volkswagen Passat 29 9 Dodge Avenger 1730 Mercury Milan 2429 Volvo S80 Variable of Interest: MPG 25 <new> Dotplot of MPG Distribution Data Analysis generally takes on many different values. In data analysis, we are interested in how often a variable takes on each value. + A variable + Check Your Understanding page 5 Population Sample + Data Analysis From Data Analysis to Inference Collect data from a representative Sample... Make an Inference about the Population. Perform Data Analysis, keeping probability in mind… Activity: Hiring Discrimination Follow the directions on Page 5 Perform 5 repetitions of your simulation. Turn in your results to your teacher. Teacher: Right-click (control-click) on the graph to edit the counts. Class Simulation Data 10 Frequency 8 7 6 4 4 2 1 1 2 8 6 3 1 0 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 Number of Female Pilots (out of 8) Data Analysis